Neuropathological mechanisms of manic syndrome or manic episodes in bipolar disorder remain poorly characterised, as the research progress is severely limited by the paucity of appropriate animal models. Here we developed a novel mania mice model by combining a series of chronic unpredictable rhythm disturbances (CURD), which include disruption of circadian rhythm, sleep deprivation, exposure to cone light, with subsequent interference of followed spotlight, stroboscopic illumination, high-temperature stress, noise disturbance and foot shock. Multiple behavioural and cell biology tests comparing the CURD-model with healthy controls and depressed mice were deployed to validate the model. The manic mice were also tested for the pharmacological effects of various medicinal agents used for treating mania. Finally, we compared plasma indicators of the CURD-model mice and the patients with the manic syndrome. The CURD protocol produced a phenotype replicating manic syndrome. Mice exposed to CURD presented manic behaviours similar to that observed in the amphetamine manic model. These behaviours were distinct from depressive-like behaviours recorded in mice treated with a depression-inducing protocol of chronic unpredictable mild restraint (CUMR). Functional and molecular indicators in the CURD mania model showed multiple similarities with patients with manic syndrome. Treatment with LiCl and valproic acid resulted in behavioural improvements and recovery of molecular indicators. A novel manic mice model induced by environmental stressors and free from genetic or pharmacological interventions is a valuable tool for research into pathological mechanisms of mania.© 2023. The Author(s).
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