To analyze probability of prodromal Parkinson’s disease (pPD) and assess the association between global cognitive function and cognitive domain function and probability of pPD in ≥55 years old middle-aged and elderly people in Hebei, Zhejiang, Shaanxi and Hunan Provinces in China. Data were collected from dataset of the Community-based Cohort Study on Nervous System Disease 2020. We selected 4 634 Alzheimer disease and Parkinson’s disease free persons aged ≥55 years with completed information on demographics, disease history, cognitive test, and risk factors of Parkinson’s disease for this study. Cognitive function was assessed using Montreal Cognitive Assessment Scale (Chinese version). Calculation of probability of pPD and assessment of possible/probable pPD were performed according to the criteria published by the International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. Multivariate linear regression model was used to analyze the association between cognitive function and probability of pPD. The (,) of global cognitive function and cognitive domains in terms of memory, execution, visuospatial function, language, attention and orientation were 25 (20, 30), 13 (11, 15), 10 (7, 12), 6 (4, 7), 5 (4, 6), 15 (12, 18) and 6 (6, 6) points, respectively. The (,) of probability of pPD was 0.42% (0.80%, 1.73%), and the proportion of the study subjects with possible/probable pPD was 0.4%. Differences in the distribution of probability of pPD were significant among groups by total cognitive score quartiles (<0.001), and the difference in proportions of study subjects with possible/probable pPD was significant and showed decline trend (=0.001). After adjusted for confounders, the results of multivariate linear regression analyses showed that probability of pPD in the , and group decreased by 23.4%, 31.2% and 20.1% compared with group, and corresponding values were 0.766 (95%: 0.702-0.836), 0.688 (95%: 0.631-0.751) and 0.799 (95%: 0.730-0.875), respectively, the trend was significant (<0.001). Higher index scores of execution, visuospatial function, language, attention and orientation were highly related to lower probability of pPD (<0.001). Declines in global cognitive function and cognitive domains of execution, visuospatial function, language, attention and orientation might increase the probability of pPD in middle-aged and elderly people, suggesting the importance of cognitive intervention in early stage for pPD prevention.