Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is emerging as a potential biomarker for the detection of ovarian cancer (OC). Recently, we reported a method based upon cfDNA whole-genome sequencing data including the nucleosome distribution (nucleosome footprinting NF), terminal signature sequence (motif), DNA fragmentation (fragment), and copy number variation (CNV).In the present study, we explored whether multiomics early screening technology in cfDNA can be applied for early screening of ovarian cancer.
Fifty-nine patients with OC and 100 healthy controls were included in this prospective study. Cell-free DNA was extracted from plasma and analyzed by low-pass whole-genome sequencing. Genomic features were obtained for all samples of the cohort, including copy number variation (CNV), 5′-end motifs, fragmentation profiles, and nucleosome footprinting (NF). An integrated scoring system termed the OC score was developed based on the performance of these four features.
All four features showed diagnostic potential for OC. Based on the unique genome features of cfDNA, the OC score has high accuracy in distinguishing OC patients from healthy controls (AUC 97.7%; sensitivity 94.7%; specificity 98.0%) as a new comprehensive diagnostic method for OC. The OC score showed a gradual trend from healthy controls to OC patients with different stages, especially for early OC monitoring of concern, which achieved a satisfactory sensitivity (85.7%) at a high specificity.
This is the first study evaluating the potential of cell-free DNA for the diagnosis of primary OC using multidimensional early screening technology. We present a promising method to increase the accuracy of prediction in patients with OC.

© 2023. The Author(s).