To compare the correlation of Gleason score (GS) and ISUP grade determined by prostate biopsies (PBx) and radical prostatectomy (RP) specimens according to the biopsy technique: ultrasound randomised (RBx) vs. MRI/ultrasound fusion targeted (TBx).
Between March 2013 and June 2018, we retrospectively included patients who underwent RP for prostate cancer (PCa) histopathologically proven by RBx and/or TBx. All patients had a prebiopsy MRI by a single radiologist (using PI-RADS score), then transrectal RBx (12cores, blinded to MRI lesions) and TBx (2-4 cores/target) with elastic MRI/ultrasound fusion (UroStation™, Koelis, Grenoble, France). Histological findings were compared: PBx vs. RP.
One hundred and four patients underwent RP after RBx and/or TBx. ISUP concordance rate was better with the association RBx+TBx 49% (51/104) vs. 43.3% with TBx (P=0.07) and 43.3% with RBx (P=0.13). With RBx, 50% of the patients were downgraded (52/104) against 42.3% (44/104) with TBx (P=0.088). The association RBx+TBx significantly decreased the rate of downgrading of the ISUP score compared to the ISUP score of RP 35.6% (37/104) vs. RBx (50%, P=0.0001) and vs. TBx (42.3%, P=0.016).
In half of cases, the ISUP score was underestimated in RBx compared to RP specimens. Adding TBx to RBx significantly reduced downgrading. The combination of both biopsy techniques appeared to be the best protocol to get closer to ISUP score and GS of the RP specimens.

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