Plenty of research on microbial-viral interactions has revealed that some commensal microorganisms in the gut, including bacteria, fungi, and viruses, can resist or promote viral infection, whereas other microorganisms are involved in pathogenicity. Therefore, the balance between commensal microorganisms and human organisms is a key factor for determining infection and disease progression, and commensal microorganisms have become a hot research area in the medical field. In this review, the compositional characteristics of gut microbiota (bacteria, fungi, and viruses) during HIV infection are reviewed and changes in gut microbiota among different HIV-infected populations are described. Furthermore, the latest progress of potential microbial therapeutic methods, including a) probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics, b) fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), c) phage therapy, and d) antifungal strategy, microbial enzyme inhibition, and dietary therapeutics, is analyzed based on gut bacteria, fungi, and viruses in the field of HIV infection. This study aims to provide a useful reference for developing novel strategies for the prevention and treatment of HIV infection based on commensal microorganisms.© 2023 Wiley-VCH GmbH.