Sepsis, a complication of dysregulated host immune systemic response to an infection, is life threatening and causes multiple organ injuries. Sepsis is recognized by WHO as a big contributor to global morbidity and mortality. The heterogeneity in sepsis pathophysiology, antimicrobial resistance threat, the slowdown in the development of antimicrobials, and limitations of conventional dosage forms jeopardize the treatment of sepsis. Drug delivery nanosystems are promising tools to overcome some of these challenges. Among the drug delivery nanosystems, inflammation-responsive nanosystems have attracted considerable interest in sepsis treatment due to their ability to respond to specific stimuli in the sepsis microenvironment to release their payload in a precise, targeted, controlled, and rapid manner compared to non-responsive nanosystems. These nanosystems posit superior therapeutic potential to enhance sepsis treatment. This review critically evaluates the recent advances in the design of drug delivery nanosystems that are inflammation responsive and their potential in enhancing sepsis treatment. The sepsis microenvironment’s unique features, such as acidic pH, upregulated receptors, overexpressed enzymes, and enhanced oxidative stress, that form the basis for their design have been adequately discussed. These inflammation-responsive nanosystems have been organized into five classes namely: Receptor-targeted nanosystems, pH-responsive nanosystems, redox-responsive nanosystems, enzyme-responsive nanosystems, and multi-responsive nanosystems. Studies under each class have been thematically grouped and discussed with an emphasis on the polymers used in their design, nanocarriers, key characterization, loaded actives, and key findings on drug release and therapeutic efficacy. Further, this information is concisely summarized into tables and supplemented by inserted figures. Additionally, this review adeptly points out the strengths and limitations of the studies and identifies research avenues that need to be explored. Finally, the challenges and future perspectives on these nanosystems have been thoughtfully highlighted.Copyright © 2023. Published by Elsevier B.V.