Hepatitis B vaccine induces the production of antibodies against hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) and prevents hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, 5-10% of individuals cannot develop anti-HBs even after multiple vaccinations (HB vaccine non-responders). We developed an intranasal vaccine containing both HBs antigen (HBsAg) and HB core antigen (HBcAg) and mixed it with a viscosity enhancer, carboxyl vinyl polymer (CVP-NASVAC). Here, we investigated the prophylactic capacity of CVP-NASVAC in HB vaccine non-responders. Thirty-four HB vaccine non-responders were administered three doses of intranasal CVP-NASVAC. The prophylactic capacity of CVP-NASVAC was assessed by evaluating the induction of anti-HBs and anti-HBc (IgA and IgG) production, HBV-neutralization activity of sera, and induction of HBs- and HBc-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). After CVP-NASVAC administration, anti-HBs and anti-HBc production were induced in 31/34 and 27/34 patients, respectively. IgA anti-HBs and anti-HBc titers significantly increased after CVP-NASVAC vaccination. HBV-neutralizing activity in vitro was confirmed in the sera of 26/29 CVP-NASVAC-administered participants. HBs- and HBc-specific CTL counts substantially increased after the CVP-NASVAC administration. Mild adverse events were observed in 9/34 participants; no serious adverse events were reported. Thus, CVP-NASVAC could be a beneficial vaccine for HB vaccine non-responders.