During the intrusion of lower incisors with clear aligners (CAs), root disengagement from the alveolar bone often occurs, resulting in serious complications. This study aimed to determine the potential force mechanism of the mandibular anterior teeth under the pressure of CA, providing theoretical data for clinical practice.
In this study, a 3D finite element model was established, including the CA, periodontal ligament, and mandibular dentition. Incisor mandibular plane angles were set as 5 groups: 90°, 95°, 100°, 105°, and 110°. The 4 mandibular incisors were intruded by 0.2 mm, while the canines were the anchorage teeth. The stress, force systems, and potential movement trends of mandibular anterior teeth were obtained.
The compressive stress of the incisors was concentrated in the lingual fossa, incisal ridge, and apex. With the increase in IMPA, the moment of central incisors changed from lingual crown moment to labial crown moment, with the turning point between 100° and 105°, but the center of resistance (CR) was always subjected to the force toward the lingual and intrusive direction. The force and moment toward the labial side of the lateral incisors were greater than those toward the central incisors. The canines always tipped distally and received extrusive force with no relationship with IMPA.
With the increase in the initial IMPA, the direction of labiolingual force on the mandibular incisors was reversed. However, the root of the lower incisors always tipped labially, which indicated fenestration and dehiscence.

© 2023. The Author(s).