Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea is responsible for approximately a third of the cases of secondary amenorrhea. The condition is a result of disturbances in gonadotropin-releasing hormone pulsatile secretion at the level of the hypothalamus, which in turn disrupts gonadotropin secretion. It is due to psychosocial stress, disordered eating, and/or excessive exercise. Often, however, it is a combination of more than one etiology, with a possible role for genetic or epigenetic predisposition. The dysfunctional gonadotropin-releasing hormone release leads to the cessation of ovarian function, resulting in amenorrhea, infertility, and a long-term impact on affected women’s bone health, cardiovascular risk, cognition, and mental health. Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea is a diagnosis of exclusion, and treatment involves identifying and reversing the underlying cause(s). The aim of this concise review is to summarize the current knowledge of functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, review its pathophysiology and the adverse health consequences, and provide recommendations for diagnosis and management of this condition. Furthermore, this review will emphasize the gaps in research on this common condition impacting women of reproductive age all over the world.Copyright © 2023 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.