It has been previously shown that clinical cardiovascular manifestations can be caused by mild changes in thyroid function. However, the implication of angiotensinogen (Agt) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) dysfunction in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular manifestations in hypothyroidism have not yet been investigated. We induced experimental hypothyroidism in Psammomys obesus by administering carbimazole for five months. At the end of the experiment, the animals were sacrificed and histopathological analysis was performed using Masson’s trichrome staining of the aorta and thyroid gland. The expression of the Agt gene and the genes implicated in cholesterol metabolism regulation in the liver and VSMCs was determined by qRT-PCR. Histological observations revealed profound remodeling of the aorta structure in animals with hypothyroidism. In addition, Agt gene expression in the liver was significantly increased. In vitro study, showed that VSMCs from hypothyroid animals overexpressed 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (Hmgcr) and Acyl CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (Acat) 1, with failure to increase the efflux pathway genes (ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member (Abcg) 1 and 4). These results suggest that hypothyroidism leads to vascular alterations, including structural remodeling, VSMCs cholesterol metabolism dysfunction, and their switch to a synthetic phenotype, together with hepatic Agt gene overexpression.© 2023. The Author(s).